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Marxist Literary Criticism and The Class Roles Of The Characters In The Cherry Orchard The play The Cherry Orchard was intended to be a comedy by Chekhov, but the director of the play staged it as a tragedy play. Apparently, the subject matter employed in the play is extensive as much as there are comical elements, especially regarding the addiction of Ranevskaya’s brother to billiards. The characters portrayed in the movie depicted different kinds of social realism that were postulated during the Marxism’s reign. In essence, as the time goes by, the passage of the old social class has to welcome and usher in a new social class because of social change and transformation. According to the Marxism theory, people apply this social change law universally around the globe. Moreover, according to the manner in which the characters such as Gayev, Ranevskaya, and Lopakhin were depicted in the play, there is no way a single class in any social history can maintain and keep hold of their supremacy levels as well as their privileged status without incurring a challenge. In the thrilling play The Cherry Orchard, it is clear that Ranevskaya and Gayev represent the dying democracy. In particular, their growing number of debts made them to auction their orchard. Otherwise, they could lose their orchard because they had no more options. However, there was a slight opportunity for the orchard to be saved by putting it on lease for the creation of summer cottages if the virtually dying class could have accepted to live a life full of compromise and adaptation. In spite of this chance, because of their pride, they never allowed their orchard to be leased. Gayev and Lyubov were more than willing to depart that place rather than to witness other individuals possessing it. Moreover, they attempted their last battle in their unsuccessful and hopeless attempt to retrieve and save their orchard. However, they did not succeed and ended up failing in the process. Consequently, the orchard fell into hands of the much more sensible and practical man named Lopakhin. Apparently, Lopakhin is a true symbol of the emerging middle class based on the Marxism theoretical principles. He is a man who believed in practical activities, hence making him to be acknowledged as a man of action. In other words, this main attribute of Lopakhin, which was modeled around the tendency to take quick action, meant to propel him above the underprivileged class through success emanating from financial and practical resources. Initially, Lophakhin belonged to what was then known as the working class since he was once a servant in Lyubov’s house. However, through his diligent and hard work and practical way of thinking, he became successful. Moreover, with the financial stability that he had earned, he ended up moving to the middle class from the working one. In terms of economic stability, he managed to buy the cherry orchard when it was being auctioned for the highest bidder. Having done that, he attracted the attention of the aristocracy, which is clearly shown in the play when Ranevskaya offers his daughter to him. However, Lopakhin did not accept the offer at once. In addition, according to Marxism perspective, if Lopakhin in the play represents the middle class, then it is obvious that another character – Trofimov – represents the visionary and theoretical ideas of the class that was known for its commitment to embrace challenges. Altogether, the characters in The Cherry Orchard represent the real life social phenomenon that exemplified the traditional feudal way of living, which welcomed the rapidly expanding mercantile and capitalist middle class. Additionally, as a model of social realism, the characters in the play represent the setting of the Russian society that occurred during the ninetieth century when the Russians were experiencing the threshold of change. In particular, in the play, Chekhov captured the undying reality of transition and changes since it is through the displacement of Gayev and Ranevskaya that the reader is able to see the failures of adaptation and compromise in the society. Apparently, this situation symbolizes the fact that the early 20th century was the last period that witnessed the collapse of the feudal societal structure. Furthermore, in this play, the feudal society is symbolized as boring, ridiculously ideal, dreamy, and passive. In simple terms, these characteristics clearly show that the feudal class had no right to be on the topmost place at the social hierarchy. In the book, there is also the depiction of the middle class as individuals who are hardworking, sensible, practical, painstaking, radical, and ambitious. Therefore, it can be argued that the writer of the play is in support of the emergence of the middle class during this period. Furthermore, Madame Ranevskaya is also among the few characters in the play that are not able to adapt to the needs and the demands of the society. In other words, her behavior when she is unable to pay her own debts but helps a friend by giving money for her loan can be described as irrational. Essentially, she continues to be more generous with strangers and her friends as well as to live an aristocratic life even though the aristocratic power does not offer her any advantage in her predicaments at any point. She finds it difficult to change; hence, surrounding herself with Yasha is a clear symbolism of failing to adapt. On the contrary, Simeonof-Pishtchik represents a true picture of adaptability. In the play, he is a neighbor who owns land next to the cherry orchard and is always social in nature. Moreover, he is able to adapt and make jokes where others have failed. Even though during most of his appearances in the play he is characterized by debts, he always finds a way to pay them off by the end of the acts. Given the fact that he requests some loan from Madame Ranevskaya when she herself is not able to pay off her debts, Simeonof-Pishtchick turns out to be the only character that is dynamic and can do anything to become successful. In summary, according to the manner in which the characters such as Gayev, Ranevskaya, and Lopakhin were depicted in the play, there is no way a single class in any social history can maintain and keep hold of their supremacy levels as well as their privileged status without incurring a challenge. In simple terms, the history of the Russian century during the early twentieth century can be said to be a history of social transformation and transition. Additionally, the Russian society, which was trying so hard to break free from the shibboleth of what was then acknowledged as the dying feudal aristocracy, characterized the late stages of the ninetieth century. Parallel to this struggle and due to the final change it brought, the Russian society also managed to hasten the birth of a mercantile middle class. Ultimately, the play The Cherry Orchard is well written and enriched with a number of themes that characterize the manner in which things had been happening during the 19th and 20th century in the Russian society. More articles of this writer you can read following the attached link upper.
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Architectural Design of the Selimiye Mosque My name is Mimar Sinan, and I am an architect with a vast experience in Ottoman-Turkish art and a rich architectural history. My training as an army engineer allowed me to develop strong practical skills in architecture. The reason is that I have traveled through vast geographical regions which in turn have enriched my architectural knowledge. The richness of my experience in the industry can be illustrated by the main works in Istanbul, namely the Kulliye of Suleyman the Magnificent and the Sehzade Mosque. The former is located at one of the hills in Istanbul in front of the Golden Horn and is one of my greatest accomplishments. It took me approximately seven years to complete the architecture of a mosque surrounded by a kulliye comprising of four colleges, a hospital, a hospice for travelers, a soup kitchen, an asylum, and a hamam. The Suleymaniye Mosque is a unique construction as it is the initial type of mosque to be made with the design of a half cubic roof. My acquaintance in architectural designs and concepts can be compared to the ones of Michelangelo, a representative of the European Renaissance, as well as to the Renaissance works of Florence and Venice. With lessons from Hagia Sophia, a Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica which is highly admired, I have the intention of building something better and bigger in order to prove the greatness of Islam. Islamic architectural principles observe cosmic and symbolic conceptions where the dome is depicted as a symbol of God’s protection and domination. Consequently, my designs adopt a simplified model using a single central dome. It is based on the circle being a perfect figure which theoretically represents a perfect God. The next section will briefly map an overview of the architectural design of the Mosque. Description of the Selimiye Mosque The construction will be located on a platform enclosed by the buildings of the kulliye with the mosque at the center. Other sides will be occupied by a medrese on the south-east, a school on the south-west, and a market building on the west. The idea of having the aforementioned facilities in one place is in line with Muslim’s firm belief in Paradise based on the teachings of the Koran which has influenced the architects to create an earthly paradise similar to the one I intend to build for you. Landscape features form an integral part of the site planning and architecture characterized by buildings being set in the landscape to deliberately symbolize a paradisiacal environment. Construction methods will adhere to Islamic architectural philosophies and principles. Soil mechanic techniques will be used to construct a strong foundation. It will include digging the foundation and waiting for about three or four years for the soil to settle. At the same time, timber piling will be used to bind the soil in order to eliminate any possibility of cracking. The main building materials will be stones (babbly, mhyar, or jabal), steel arches, wage, hay, mud and gypsum. The mixture of mud and hay will be used as binder. Materials used to make the foundation will include lime and broken wage with ash being used at the mortar. The foundation will have a depth of between 1 to 3 meters. For proper acoustics inside the mosque, the domes will be paired creating an acoustical dome effect. Reverberation and reflections will also be minimized by using long stone blocks (about 18” ) for the ceiling. Wide gaps will also be left on the floor in order to catch resonant waves. Architectural plan of the mosque The courtyard will contain three entrances on the west, east and north. The center of the courtyard will be fitted with a 12-sided fountain. The corners of the prayer hall will resemble a minaret with a height of 71m and 3 balconies. Porticoes will have two bays for latecomers with panel vaults, and the rest will be covered with domes. The most special peculiarity will be the roof of the prayer hall. It will have a monumental dome rising to 42.25m in height with a diameter of approximately 31.28m that will be carried on eight 12-sided pillars. Both the height and the diameter surpass other buildings designed as a mosque. The dome is an important element in Islamic architecture. An article published by the Hurriyet Daily News identifies the dome as an important symbol signifying power and the focal point of assembly. In Islam, it represents the “vault of heaven in the same way as the garden prefigures Paradise”. That is the reason a lot of emphasis and efforts are being invested in the dome. Two buttresses will support the east and west pillars, and the spaces between the walls as well as the pillars will be decorated with galleries. The Sultan’s loge will be located in the southeast corner, and the center of the prayer hall will have a loge for chanters. Architectural plan of the mosque An octagonal architectural design with a support system of pillars cut into square shell of walls will define the final work. Ornamented marble will be used to make the pulpit and the altar. Construction materials to be used will include tile, wood, stone, marble, and mother of pearl decorative features which are important Turkish architectural features. The walls of the mihrab, pulpit, gallery, and pavilion will be decorated with tile. A great part of the interior decoration will be done using Iznik tiles while the exterior will be defined by a mixture of stone mixed with bricks. Conclusion The construction of Selimiye Mosque may seem costly. However, my able team and I assure you that all materials for construction will be utilized properly, and audits will be conducted to ensure that the construction budget is respected and adhered. In addition, having overseen numerous projects of such a momentum, I am positive that the funds allocated to this construction will not be misused, and in case an issue arises, I shall be personally held responsible. As explained in the previous section, this building will have the tallest minarets and the highest dome in the world. It will indeed remain as the main landmark in Turkey due to its taller dome that stands without support from semi-domes or other lower pillars. This masterpiece in the Islamic architecture will never be matched. It is my sincere hope that you will entrust me with this assignment. In return, expect an award winning an architectural design and a quality work from a professional. 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